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IMPROVING FEED AVAILABILITY IN SMALL HOLLDER DAIRY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

NAKYESASA DAIRY RESEARCH AND BUSINESS HUB ADDRESSES A GAP OF PASTURE SEED SCARCITY

CROSSBREEDING SMALL EAST AFRICAN ZEBU (SEAZ) WITH SAHIWAL CATTLE FOR TRACTION

CROSSBREEDING OF THE SEAZ CATTLE WITH BORAN FOR INCREASED MEAT PRODUCTIVITY

IMPROVING INDIGENOUS CHICKENS THROUGH CROSSBREEDING: THE SAARI CROSSBRED CHICKENS

CROSSBREEDING OF THE INDIGENOUS GOATS WITH BOER FOR INCREASED MEAT PRODUCTIVITY

FODDER CONSERVATION FOR AVAILING FORAGES TO LIVESTOCK FARMERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR

IMPROVING FEED AVAILABILITY IN SMALL HOLLDER DAIRY PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

By Kabirizi, J.; Mugerwa, S.; Nanyeenya, W.; Kigongo, J. and Zziwa, E., National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI)

Corresponding Author:   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; Tel: 0777912716

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

Small-scale dairy production plays a crucial role in food security, and overall household health and livelihoods, Zero-grazing (stall fed) intensive dairy systems are increasingly promoted, owing to increasing open grazing land shortage alongside precise dairy production requirements. Women both in male and female headed households are immense contributors to and beneficiaries from smallholder dairy production systems, which are progressively being devastated by rapid climate change, its attendant extreme weather conditions and feed scarcity.  Productivity of napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) - the major forage in zero-grazing systems is constrained by long droughts, poor agronomic practices (fertilizer application and cutting frequency and height, and pests and diseases – notably napier stunt disease that dampen it regeneration and biomass yields.

TECHNOLOGIES INNOVATIONS AND MANAGEMENT PRACTICES PROMOTED

Major forage species

Forage  and feed technologies

Management practices for enhance feed variety, rations and quality

Feed Processing Equipment

 

Forage grasses

1.       Pennisetum purpureum

2.       Brachiaria hybrid cv. mulato

 

1.       Dry season feeding

·         Silage production

·         Hay making

 

2.       Protein and energy feed formulation

·         Homemade dairy meal

·         Lablab and calliandra leaf hay dry season protein supplements

·         Sorghum stover-tithonia rations

1.       Multi-nutrient feed blocks

 

 

·         Integration of forage legumes into Napier grass  and cereal cropping systems

·         Recommended acreage for Napier grass-forage legume mixture that provide dairy cow year round requirements

·         Staggering planting dates of Lablab into maize crop to avoid competition

·         Napier stunt disease management package

·          

·         Manual metallic forage chopper

·         Motorised manual forage chopper

·         Improved heavy pressing surface hay baler

·         A modified pellet making machine (with Musa Body fabricators)

 

Forage legumes

1.       Lablab purpureus

2.       Clitoria ternatae

3.       Macroptilium atroprupureum

4.       Centrosema pubescens

Fodder trees and shrubs

1.       Calliandra calothyrus  

2.       Gliricidia sepium

3.       Lithonia diversifolia

DISSEMINATION APPROACHES

1.       On-farm demonstration trials

2.       Farmers’ demos site and cross visits

3.       Newspaper articles

4.       Radio and television programmes

5.       Farmer workshops

6.       Demonstration site field days

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES

1.       Participatory involvement of key actors in the feed value chains (farmers, local leaders, extension staff)

2.       Beneficiary farming community hosting, Monitoring and Evaluation of demonstration processes

3.       Community’s ability to compare and contrast own and improved TIMPS

4.       Integrated manure, leguminous crop residue soil fertility enhancement

5.       Napier grass varieties that are tolerant to Napier stunt disease

CHALLENGES FACED

1.       High cost of planting materials especially seed

2.       Low grade dairy breeds kept by farmers inhibit appropriate response to quality feeds

3.       Attitude of rationing feeds and water - underfeeding compromises the effectiveness of feed supplementation

4.       Effects of climate change still make basal feed supplement a serious constraint to farmers

IMPACT/ BENEFITS GAINED BY ADOPTERS

1.       Improved knowledge and skills on fodder management; milk yield due to improved feeding. Milk yield and fodder availability increased by between 10-20% and over 20%, respectively

2.       Adopters established 2,700 acres of fodder in key districts where zero grazing is a major enterprise.

3.       Adopters upscaling technology dissemination through visitors received from Uganda and outside.

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NAKYESASA DAIRY RESEARCH AND BUSINESS HUB ADDRESSES A GAP OF PASTURE SEED SCARCITY

AUTHOR (S) AND INSTITUTE AND CONTACT DETAILS

Nakiganda. A., Mugerwa. S., Kabirizi. J., Walugembe. F and Nanyeenya, W

National Livestock Resources Research Institute  (NaLIRRI)

Corresponding Author:   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Tel: O782901687

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

The livestock sub sector contributes 18% of agriculture gross domestic product (AGDP) and between 7%-9% of the national gross domestic product (GDP).  Although livestock plays a crucial role in the lives of Ugandans, its production is limited by feed shortage, especially during the dry seasons. Inadequate feed was identified as one of the major constraints limiting livestock production (Mubiru et al. 2003 and Nakiganda, 2004). This is in turn mainly caused by limited pasture seed supply sources and sufficient quantities to meet farmers’ demand. In Uganda commercial seed company with reliable production and/or steady supply of pasture seeds, yet there is high demand of pasture seeds by livestock farmers to improve dairy productivity through producing quality and adequate forage resources. Through support from EAAPP, NaLIRRI started producing pasture grass and legume seeds (Table 1) during the period 2010 to 2015.

TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIONS AND MANAGEMENT PPRACTICES PROMOTED

Table 1: Forage Seed Production by Nakyesasa 2010 – 2015

Type

Species

Selling Unit

Quantity produced

Value of seed  (UGX ‘000’)

Estimated area planted (acres)

Legume

Lablab

Kg

6,800

136,000

1,133

Legume

Clitoria ternatea

Kg

450

6,750

225

Legume

Brachiaria splits

Sacks

10,000

200,000

1,000

Grass

Chloris gayana

Kg

4,400

88,000

440

Grass

Stunt disease tolerant Napier

Sacks

6,500

130,000

650

Total

700,750

3,448

One sack of Napier grass cuttings contain 350 cuttings


DISSEMINATION APPROACHES

  1. On farm demonstration trials
  2. Demonstrations and field visits at Nakyesasa and ZARDIs
  3. Agricultural Shows and field days
  4. Farmers’ trainings
  5. Articles in news papers and documentaries at the televisions
  6. Brochures, leaflets, posters and fact sheets
  7. Testing and sale of seeds by and to farmers

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

1.      High technical competency to handle seed multiplication

2.      Availability of land for the seed multiplication at Nakyesasa and contract farmer groups

3.      Access to foundation and breeder seed from within the National Agricultural Research Organization

4.      Ability to do adaptive research and selection of relevant pasture species

5.      Supportive management at the Institute and NARO secretariat

CHALLENGES FACED AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES ADOPTED

1.      Transporting bulk vegetative planting materials

2.      Vegetative multiplication of planting materials like brachiaria takes long and is cumbersome

Multiplication of vegetative planting materials was accelerated by potting brachiaria splits

The potted brachiaria also partly solved problem of transporting bulky bags of brachiaria

IMPACT/ BENEFITS GAINED BY ADOPTERS

1.      Establishment of 3448 acres of forage fields

2.      Fodder availability in Uganda increased by approximately 32 million tons of fresh weight providing sufficient feeds to593 Tropical Livestock Units (TLUs) in a year.

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CROSSBREEDING SMALL EAST AFRICAN ZEBU (SEAZ) WITH SAHIWAL CATTLE FOR TRACTION

AUTHOR (S), INSTITUTE AND CONTACT DETAILS

E. Ssewannyana, H. Mulindwa, B. Babigumira, J. Oluka, J. Masaba, G.W. Egadu

National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI)

Corresponding Author:   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Tel: O782565201; 0751813000

 

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

Cattle play a key role in livelihoods of Ugandans by providing incomes and protein nutrition at household levels. The use of oxen for traction highly compliments crop production through timely and increased cultivated area. It is known that households that include livestock in their enterprise mix tend to be generally less poor (UBOS, 2007). Indigenous cattle breeds comprise of the Ankole, SEAZ and Nganda. The SEAZ, however, is of small size and low in traction ability. Crossbreeding programme was conducted at Serere station by mating Sahiwal bulls to Zebu cows to develop improved breeds of cattle with improved traction capacity.

TIMPS DEVELOPED AND/OR PROMOTED

The improved Sahiwal crossbred cattle produced had heavier birth weights of 19.5 kg or 4 kg (26%) heavier than indigenous Zebu, weaning weights of 92.5 kg or 31 kg (50%) heavier at 9 months, 115.3 kg or 25.1 kg (27.8%) heavier at 12 months and with a pre-weaning growth rate of 405 g/day or an increase of 150.6 g/day (59.2%). The crossbred animals were hardy, had higher growth rates, traction capacity and higher body weights than indigenous SEA Zebu.

DISSEMINATION APPROACHES

Over 1500 farmers were trained on traction technologies and supply of crossbred Sahiwal animals covered over 15 districts including Pallisa, Soroti, Kumi, Bukedea, Lira, Gulu, Apach, Dokolo. Dokolo, Katakwi, Amuria, Mbale, Sironko,  Tororo, Iganga and Kaberamaido and over 150 improved Sahiwal F1 (50%) crossbred bulls for breeding and traction supplied. There was also performance testing with farmers’ participation alongside sensitization, training and dissemination of information materials through national and local shows.

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

Levels of between 50% -75% Sahiwal x SEAZ improved cattle were produced. There was an increase in crop-livestock synergies by traction and manure supporting op production and increased crop residues contributing to livestock feeds . Success was achieved through concurrent performance testing and selection with participation by the farmers themselves, high levels of farmer sensitization and intensive training and extensive dissemination of information packages.

CHALLENGES FACED AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES ADOPTED

Lack of breeding bulls to maintain the 50-75% Sahiwal blood level was major challenge. AI was used but was limited due to lack of service providers and high expense involved. Collaboration with regional partners and the NARS such as NAGRC&DB and NAADS was encouraged.

IMPACT/ BENEFITS GAINED BY ADOPTERS

The technology enhanced crop production through trained Sahiwal crossbred animals used for ox-cultivation with over 50% more land opened compared to the pure small SEAZ oxen. Sahiwal crossbred cows produced more milk yield.  Besides more cultivated area, intervention resulted in a higher yield of meat and milk; and producer household incomes.

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CROSSBREEDING OF THE SEAZ CATTLE WITH BORAN FOR INCREASED MEAT PRODUCTIVITY

AUTHOR (S) AND INSTITUTE AND CONTACT DETAILS

E. Ssewannyana, H. Mulindwa, J. Oluka, J. Masaba, G.W. Egadu

National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI)

Corresponding Author:   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Tel: O782565201; 0751813000

 

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

Meat consumption in Uganda is low and is estimated at 5.6kg compared to 50kg recommended by FAO and WHO. The food and nutrition security situation is a challenge with average caloric intake per person per day slightly improved from 1,494 in 1992 to 1,971 in 2005 (MAAIF, 2010). According to 1994 figures, there was a meat consumption gap of 800,000 tons and the annual rate of increase projected at 7.4% for beef and goat meat, 3.32% for pork and 4.87% for chicken. Crossbreeding programme was conducted at Serere to develop improved breeds of cattle withr increased meat productivity, avail these improved animals to farmers for increased meat production and promote better management of livestock under farmers’ conditions.

TIMPS DEVELOPED AND/OR PROMOTED

Both F1 (50% Boran: 50% Zebu) and F2 (75% Boran:5% Zebu) crossbred animals were produced with average percentage increase of 75% in body weight compared with pure local Small East African Zebu of similar age. There was an increase in birth weight from 15.5 to 22.0 kg, an increase of over 6.5 kg or 42% and over 16% (10 kg) increase in 9 mo weaning weight from 61.5 to 71.5 kg, pre-weaning gain of 8.5% (21.7 g/day) from 254.5 g/day to 405 g/day and 18.6% (17 kg) increased in 12 mo live weight from 90.2 to 117 kg for F1 Boran crossbred animals.

DISSEMINATION APPROACHES

Farmer training and over 100 Boran F1 crossbred bulls were supplied to farmers for breeding for meat production and also improved animals for meat availed to the farming communities especially in semi-arid north-eastern region districts aided by NGOS, NAADS and individual farmers. Beneficiaries had enhanced income through sales of more meat and live animals and improved protein intake by the rural communities from increased meat and milk yield.

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

There was farmer training and participatory on-farm performance evaluation by the farmers where both knowledge and skills on better management practices led to increased meat productivity and income.

CHALLENGES FACED AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES ADOPTED

The major challenges included lack of breeding bulls to maintain the 50-75% Boran blood level. AI would be a useful intervention in collaboration with regional partners and the NARS such as NAGRC&DB and NAADS.

IMPACT/ BENEFITS GAINED BY ADOPTERS

About 100 Boran F1 crossbred bulls were produce, evaluated and supplied to farmers for breeding for meat production and also improved animals for meat availed to the farming communities especially in semi-arid north-eastern region districts aided by NGOS, NAADS and individual farmers. Beneficiaries had enhanced income through sales of more meat and live animals and improved protein intake by the rural communities from increased meat and milk yield.

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IMPROVING INDIGENOUS CHICKENS THROUGH CROSSBREEDING: THE SAARI CROSSBRED CHICKENS

AUTHOR (S) AND INSTITUTE AND CONTACT DETAILS

E. Ssewannyana, J. Oluka, J. Masaba, G.W. Egadu

National Livestock Resources Research Institute  (NaLIRRI)

Corresponding Author:    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Tel: O782565201; 0751813000

 

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

The SAARI CROSSBRED chicken derives its name from SAARI (Serere Agricultural and Animal Production Research Institute) now currently re-named NaSARRI (National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute) located at Serere (Igola), where the breeding took place. The SAARI CROSSBRED Chickens breed was developed from a special crossbreeding programme using imported exotic Bovans Brown cocks and selected indigenous chickens. Prior to this, earlier crossbreeding programmes using Arbor Acres and Hybro exotic meat breeds were conducted and evaluated. It was found that the F1 of these meat breeds were poor in egg production yet farmers needed an improved chicken with both high egg and meat production. Bovans Brown was identified, tested and found suitable for crossbreeding to increase both meat and egg production.

TIMPS DEVELOPED AND/OR PROMOTED

The SAARI CROSSBRED improved chickens live weight is 3.0-4.0 kg which doubles that of indigenous chickens of 1.5-2.0 kg at 20 weeks, doubles egg weight from 25-30 gm to 45-60 gm, doubles number of eggs produced from 10-12 to 20-35. The SAARI crossbred cocks were supplied to 10,000 farmers in Moyo, Lira, Apac, Soroti, Mukono, Busia, Tororo, Mbale, Sironko, Arua and Adjumanithrough NAADS, AT Uganda, Action Aid, NaBZARDI and agricultural shows

DISSEMINATION APPROACHES

Training of farmers and on-farm farmer participatory performance testing and evaluation was conducted alongside shows and dissemination materials. The performance involved selection for higher growth rates, higher adult weights, higher egg yields and good adaptation. It proved that while selection targeted on yields of meat and eggs, farmers favoured and adopted the breed especially for its camouflaging colour pattern of feathers, retention of broodiness, scavenging and good mothering ability of the hens.

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

1.      High egg and meat productivity of the SAARI chickens

2.      Ability of the SAARI chickens to brood and scavenge for its own food

3.      Highly adapted chicken that blended well with the environment

4.      Palatable meat and yellow yoked eggs

5.      Highly marketable bird

6.      Farmers associations created by small groups of farmers

CHALLENGES FACED AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES ADOPTED

Major challenges include sustaining production of the 75% Bovans breed level and controlling diseases especially New Castle disease. Attempts to form farmer groups in various districts was not followed up to form effective long lasting associations for sustainability and continuity of the breeding and production of the SAAARI Crossbred chickens. 

IMPACT/ BENEFITS GAINED BY ADOPTERS

Adoption of the technology resulted into 79.3% increase in incoms of local free ranging chicken farmers, 150% increase in egg consumption, I69.7% increase in meat consumption.

 

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CROSSBREEDING OF THE INDIGENOUS GOATS WITH BOER FOR INCREASED MEAT PRODUCTIVITY

AUTHOR (S) AND INSTITUTE AND CONTACT DETAILS

J. Oluka, H. Mulindwa, E. Ssewannyana, B. Babigumira, J. Masaba, G.W. Egadu

National Livestock Resources Research Institute (NaLIRRI)

Corresponding Author:   This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Tel: O782565201; 0751813000

 

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

Goats are valuable for income, meat and poverty alleviation thus respond well to government programme of transforming subsistence to commercial agriculture (NDP, 2010). Goat population in Uganda increased rapidly to about 12,449,656 of which 98.7% were indigenous goats comprising of Mubende (14.5%), Small East African (83.3%) and Kigezi (2.2%) goat breeds with 1.3% being exotic and crossbred (UBOS, 2008). The indigenous goats are generally meat goats and adapted to the local conditions but with genetically poor for meat productivity compared to the Boer goats. Yet meat breeds and their crosses with indigenous are potential sources of the required meat from goats. The major objective of the goat improvement programme was to develop improved goat breeds for meat and avail them to farmers for increased meat production.

TIMPS DEVELOPED AND/OR PROMOTED

Improved Boer crossbred goats for meat had higher meat production capacity where F1 Boer crossbred had an increase in birth weight from 1.5 to 2.0 kg, an increase in 4 month weaning weight from 7.0 to 9.5 kg and an increase in pre-weaning gain from 47.0 g/day to 66.0 g/day, increase in 12 month weight from 12.0 to 18.0 kg.

DISSEMINATION APPROACHES

On-station performance evaluation was conducted alongside on-farm farmer sensitization, training and farmer participatory performance evaluation under on-farm production environment These crossbred goats were availed farmers in over 10 districts including Arua, Gulu, Apach, Lira, Dokolo, Soroti, Kumi, Bukedea, Amuria, Katakwi, Mbale, Sironko, Pallisa, Tororo, Iganga. Distribution was done to individual farmers but also in partnership with NAADS, NGOs, CBOs and Local Government in sensitizing the farming communities on multipurpose value of F1

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

The crossbreeding programme made significant achievements from 50-75% Boer crossbred goats with higher growth rates and body weights at birth, weaning (4 months) and adult (12 moths) ages were produced and availed to farmers. Bucks of the 75% were on high demand and supplied mainly for breeding and improvement of village flocks.

CHALLENGES FACED AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES ADOPTED

The major challenges included lack of pure breeding bucks to maintain the 50-75% Boer blood level. Collaboration with regional partners and the NARS such as NAGRC&DB and NAADS is highly recommended.

IMPACT/ BENEFITS GAINED BY ADOPTERS

Boer crossbred had an increase in birth weight from 1.5 to 2.0 kg, an increase in 4 month weaning weight from 7.0 to 9.5 kg and an increase in pre-weaning gain from 47.0 g/day to 66.0 g/day, increase in 12 month weight from 12.0 to 18.0 kg.  The introduction of the Boer crossbred goats improved income, meat yield and protein intake as well as overall livelihood and nutritional status of especially rural farm communities. Partnership with NAADS enabled a creation of goat breeders and producers associations accelerated the adoption of better breeding, feeding and health management practices.

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FODDER CONSERVATION FOR AVAILING FORAGES TO LIVESTOCK FARMERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR

Nakiganda, A., Mugerwa, S., Kabirizi, J., Walugembe, F., Kigongo, J. and Ezati C.

National Livestock Resources Research Institute , NaLIRRI

Corresponding Author:    This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., Tel: O782901687

 

BACKGROUND TO THE PROBLEM

Poor nutritional status of cattle is considered the most challenging constraint to smallholder dairy farms in Uganda (Kabirizi, 2006). Most of the smallholder dairy farmers are challenged by acute shortage and extreme fluctuations of feed resources. These shortages and fluctuations are often translated into inefficiencies in nutrient supply to livestock.  During rainy season pastures and water are in plenty, however when the dry season set in pastures and water become scarce, milk yield reduces by 50% and farmers especially in the cattle corridor lose their animals. In 2014 because of the drought farmers in Mityana lost 40% of their herds. NaLIRRI has been producing hay and silage to fill the gap of feed shortage during dry periods and to urban and peri urban who keep dairy cattle on small pieces of land. NaLIRRI has trained several youths and farmers on techniques of making hay, haylage and silage.

TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIONS AND MANAGEMENT PPRACTICES PROMOTED

Forage conservation at Nakyesasa

Hay

Forage conservation

Feed type

Annual Production (tons/year)

Number of animals fed

Milk yield (litres)

Revenue from sale of milk

Hay (tons)

600

350

630,000

945,000,000

Silage (tons)

5000

500

900,000

1,350,000,000

Total

5600

850

1,530,000

2,295,000,000 


DISSEMINATION APPROACHES

1.      On farm demonstration trials

2.      Demonstrations and field visits at Nakyesasa and ZARDIs

3.      Agricultural Shows and field days

4.      Farmers’ trainings

5.      Articles in news papers and documentaries at the televisions

6.      Brochures, leaflets, posters and fact sheets

7.      Testing and sale of seeds by and to farmers

KEY SUCCESS FACTORS

1.      Cooperation of the farmers

2.      Availability of land for the for forage production at Nakyesasa

3.      Availability of farm machinery which processes forages efficiently

4.      Technical competences by NARO staff in fodder conservation

CHALLENGES FACED AND CORRECTIVE MEASURES ADOPTED

Satisfying demand of hay and silage, this has been corrected by opening up more gardens of chloris and maize

IMPACT/ BENEFITS GAINED BY ADOPTERS

1.       850 cows were sustained during six months of dry period

2.       Improvement in dry season milk production by 1,530,000 litres

3.       Revenue of 2,295,000,0000 Shs was saved